Why women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men, and why is this difference growing in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we don’t know how much each factor contributes.

In spite of the precise amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as in the past, has to have to do with the fact that several fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, افضل كريم للشعر so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.



In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.

Let’s look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there’s an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, افضل كريم للشعر and Sweden.

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