Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase as time passes? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But this isn’t due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

Interestingly, this chart shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, اضيق وضعية للجماع the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.



In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.

Let’s examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small but it increased substantially over the last century.

By selecting ‘Change Country’ on the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points are applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.

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