Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence isn’t conclusive and we’re left with only partial solutions. We know there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women who live longer than males, we aren’t sure how much each factor contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, زيوت تطويل الشعر like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For زيوت تطويل الشعر example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that although there is a women’s advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half one year.

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The advantage women had in life expectancy was much lower in rich countries as compared to the present.

Let’s now look at how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be quite small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

7 years agoYou can verify that these are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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