Why are women living longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and how is this difference growing in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام (visit the following internet page) However, we’re not sure what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men, but not previously, is to do with the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in every country can expect to live longer than her older brother.

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.



In the richer countries, the women’s advantage in longevity used to be smaller

We will now examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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